Friday, 29 January 2016

Year of Consecrated Life: Missionary Orders

This will be our last post marking the Year of Consecrated Life, which comes to an end on February 2nd. Over the last year we have attempted to gratefully remember some of the religious orders that have ministered in the Archdiocese of Toronto.

We are blessed to have living and serving among us more than 900 religious men and women of 100 different religious congregations. Although we could not feature them all, you can still honour these orders by observing the World Day of Prayer for Consecrated Life on Sunday, January 31 at 3 p.m. at St. Paul's Basilica (83 Power St., Toronto). This will be a special Mass to close the Year for Consecrated Life.

This week, we highlight three missionary orders: The Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Scarborough Foreign Mission Fathers, and Our Lady's Missionaries.

The Polish Oblate Fathers (O.M.I)
Last week, the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate celebrated the 200th anniversary of their order's foundation by the French aristocrat priest Eugene de Mazenod. The Oblates' first aim was to serve the impoverished parishes of Provence, whose spiritual needs had been neglected following the French Revolution and Napoleon's anti-clerical governance.

In 1841, Canada became the first foreign mission of the Oblates with headquarters in Montreal. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the order sent for more priests from Europe who would be able to speak the languages of new immigrants to Canada.

In 1935, the first Oblates of Mary Immaculate arrived in Toronto to administer St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish.  These Polish priests were part of the Polish Oblate Province in Canada, called Assumption Province. Following World War II, thousands of Polish immigrants came to Canada and settled in Toronto.  Under the Oblates' leadership, parishioners were able to place every family that arrived.

The Polish Oblate Fathers have continued to administer St. Stanislaus and well as St. Casimir's (Toronto), St. Maximilian Kolbe (Mississauga), and St. Eugene de Mazenod (Brampton). The Assumption Province Oblates also run the Queen of Apostles Renewal Centre in Mississauga.

Read more about the Oblates in Canada in this special section of The Catholic Register.

Photographs Collection, Religious Orders Series, PH27O/01P

Group photo of the Oblate Generalate in Rome, 1949
with Cardinal McGuigan and Bishop Allen (front, 4th and 6th)

Photographs Collection, Parish Series, PH0101/16P

Archbishop Pocock celebrating Mass at St. Stanislaus Parish on the 25th anniversary of the St. Stanislaus Parish Credit Union.

The Credit Union, with its roots in social justice and charity, was instrumental in settling post-war Polish immigrants in Toronto.

Photographs Collection, Religious Orders Series, PH27O/02PC

Postcard of the Oblates' Queen of Apostles' Retreat House in Port Credit.
The location continues to be a popular retreat house in the archdiocese. 

Scarboro Foreign Mission Society
Rev. John Mary Fraser, the founder of Scarboro Missions, was a Toronto-born priest ordained in Italy to serve as a missionary. In 1902, he became the first North American priest to undertake mission work in China and, after eight years, decided the job was too large for one man.

In 1918, Fr. Fraser was permitted to establish the China Mission Seminary in the Archdiocese of Ottawa to train priests to accompany him overseas. The building soon proved too small to accommodate growing vocations so Fr. Fraser moved to the Archdiocese of Toronto. A new seminary was constructed in 1924 on the grounds of St. Augustine's Seminary, Scarborough, which allowed for shared classes. Because of its new location, the China Mission Seminary was renamed, and ordinandi called Scarboro Foreign Mission Fathers (S.F.M).

In 1949, following the Communist Revolution, all missionaries were expelled from China. The Mission Fathers changed their focus to other countries in Asia and Latin America.

In 1974, due to Vatican II reforms and declining vocations, the Mission began accepting lay men and women into their ministry. The organization is now called Scarboro Missions and defines itself as a society of Canadian Catholics, both priests and laity.

Photographs Collection, Religious Orders Series, PH27S/09P

Msgr. John Mary Fraser, founder of Scarboro Foreign Missions, in front of his new church in Fukuoka, Japan (c.1950s)

Scarboro Foreign Missions were originally based in China but all missionaries were expelled in 1949, following the Communist Revolution. Undaunted by the closure of the China mission, Monsignor Fraser soon accepted an invitation from the Bishop of Nagasaki, Japan to establish a new mission in that country. In May 1950, at 73, he left Toronto for a new life in Japan.

Sacred Objects Exchange, SOX-135

Travel size chalice and paten set with case.  The set was donated to the Archdiocese of Toronto's Sacred Object Exchange by Scarboro Missions. It was used by missionaries for celebrating mass while in transit on ships to China.

Our Lady's Missionaries
Another mission order with roots in Toronto is Our Lady's Missionaries (O.L.M).

The order of women was founded in 1949 by Msgr. Dan R. Macdonald, in Alexandria, Ontario. The first novices were trained for religious life by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto. In 1956, the first graduates were invited to staff a parish school in St. Catharines (then a part of the Archdiocese of Toronto) and then provide nursing staff for a hospital. With this financing, the Order opened their first missions in Japan and Nigeria.

To address the need for low-cost housing in downtown Toronto, the Missionaries purchased the old Princess Hotel at Church and Dundas Streets.  By 1963, the building was completely renovated and reopened as the Maryglen Girls Residence, a safe-haven for thousands of young women coming to Toronto.

Our Lady's Missionaries continue to contribute dually to their home base in Canada and their missions in Brazil, Nigeria and the Philippines. They share their lives with the least privileged, focusing on children, families and women’s concerns.

This month, the O.L.M. hosted a book launch of Our Story, a history of Our Lady’s Missionaries from their beginnings until 2015.

Photographs Collection, Religious Orders Album, PH31P-228AL

Photos of Our Lady's Missionaries properties (c.1960s), including the Maryglen Residence for Young Women in Toronto.

Friday, 22 January 2016

Record of the Week: Cardinal Carter's Pallium

Yesterday Catholics celebrated the Feast of St. Agnes. From as far back as the tenth century, there has been a tradition of the Pope blessing two lambs, as shown in the video below which is from last year's ceremony:

The wool from these lambs is later used to create the pallia, which are episcopal vestments reserved for metropolitan archbishops and the Pope. The pallium is symbolic of the Good Shepherd, and of the authority of the archbishop in his jurisdiction. It is worn in his own territory; only one prelate will be wearing a pallium at a time. If the pope is in an archbishop's territory, he will be the one wearing a pallium, since his territory is universal.

The wearing of the pallium originated in early Christianity. Originally a Greek garment which was much larger and worn for warmth, Christians began wearing it as a symbol of their loyalty to the Church. It was adopted by the clergy, and was eventually given as a gift by the Pope. Over the centuries, its use was restricted to only the highest-ranking bishops, and its shape changed so that it was symbolic rather than functional.

When a new metropolitan bishop is named, he must request the pallium from the Pope within three months. Last year, Pope Francis made a change so that new metropolitans are invested with their pallia in their own sees rather than in Rome, although they are still present for the blessing of the pallia on the Feast of Sts. Peter and Paul. This practice serves to provide more involvement for the people of the local Church in the new archbishop's initiation.

ARCAT has a pallium which belonged to Cardinal Carter. It is rare for a pallium to be in an archives because they are usually buried with their owner when he passes away. However, this pallium was damaged and replaced by a new one, which was buried with Caridnal Carter.

TX 107a: Cardinal Carter's Pallium
The pallium is a white woolen circle with two two stems that hang down in front and back. It is embroidered with six crosses. 

TX 107b: The pallium folded in its case.

The pallium is held in place by three jewelled pins:

AF 355: Three pallium pins

This set belonged to Cardinal Carter to replace the set below.

AF 356: Three pallium pins
This set originally belonged to Cardinal McGuigan. When Archbishop Pocock received his Toronto pallium he used these pins, as did Cardinal Carter until he replaced them with the yellow set above. You can see this set in the photo below.

PH 18P/30CP: Cardinal Carter wearing his pallium at a large event.

Cardinal Ambrozic receiving his pallium from Pope St. John Paul II on the Feast of Sts. Peter and Paul, June 29, 1990.
PH 19P/01CP

Cardinal Ambrozic wearing his pallium in St. Michael's Cathedral, ca. 2006.
Photo courtesy of the Office of Public Relations and Communications.

For more information about the pallium and other vestments and traditions of the Church, read The Church Visible, by James-Charles Noonan Jr.

Friday, 15 January 2016

Year of Consecrated Life: The Paulists and the Catholic Information Centre

The Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle was founded in 1858 by five convert priests in New York City. Their ministry focused on reaching out to Protestants in North America by evangelizing in the Roman Catholic tradition.

The Paulists became renowned for their preaching style. The early order would send missionary teams to churches to conduct "Parish Missions" and this is how the community first arrived in Canada. At one such parish mission held in 1912 at St. Paul's Parish in Toronto, the Paulists drew huge crowds, resulting in the conversion of 212 Protestants. 

In 1913, Archbishop Neil McNeil invited the Paulists, under Fr. Thomas Burke, CSP, to establish and staff the Newman Centre at the University of Toronto, which they did until 1936. The following year, the Paulists agreed to administer St. Peter's Parish in perpetuity.

In 1938, Archbishop McGuigan urged the priests at St. Peter's to run instructive courses for prospective converts, which resulted in 50 to 75 conversions per year. The popularity of the courses, held in the church basement, prompted Fr. Frank Stone, CSP, to push for a purpose-built education facility. And so in 1958 the Catholic Information Centre (CIC) was built adjacent to the parish, at 830 Bathurst Street.

In addition to classes for converts, the CIC held workshops for Catholics wishing to grow in their faith, as well as marriage preparation classes for couples.

The Paulists' zeal for evangelizing and proselytizing expanded to media communications and the order became known for its radio shows, film productions and publishing presses.

By 2015 the Paulists determined that they did not have enough vocations to stay in Toronto. In June they returned to New York, and administration of St. Peter's Parish and the CIC reverted to the Archdiocese of Toronto.
Read these Catholic Register articles for a timeline of the Paulist century in Canada, and a reflection on the Paulist legacy.
The CIC building will continue to be used as a training facility by the archdiocese. During a recent cleaning of the building, a poster featuring photographs of the Catholic Information Centre was discovered and brought to the archives.

Photographs Collection, Religious Orders, PH27P/17P

Before the Catholic Information Centre was built, the Paulists held instructional classes in the basement of St. Peter's Church.
This is a photo of the "co-instructors" with Fr. Frank Stone, CSP (right) taken in 1948.
Fr. Stone initiated the building of the Catholic Information Centre.
Photographs Collection, Religious Orders, PH27P/09P and /10P

The Catholic Information Centre under construction, April to September 1958.
The CIC is located at 830 Bathurst Street, just south of St. Peter's Church, Toronto.
Photographs Collection, Religious Orders, PH27P/11P and /12P
The Catholic Information Centre under construction, April to September 1958.
Photographs Collection, Religious Orders, PH27P/13P and /14P
The Catholic Information Centre under construction, April to September 1958.
Photographs Collection, Religious Orders, PH27P/16P

Architect Lindsay Wardell's hand drawn rendering of the Catholic Information Centre, viewed from Bathurst Street, ca. 1957
Photographs Collection, Religious Orders, PH27P/15P

Catholic Information Centre, south side: equipment for construction of the Bloor subway line, 1960s. The CIC is situated across the street from Bathurst TTC station.

Friday, 8 January 2016

Bills Bills Bills

In this space we like to explore how the ARCAT collection reflects the history of Catholic Toronto, but we also like to look at the broader context. Today we are featuring a type of document that has been around for thousands of years: bills and receipts.

These documents give us an amazing glimpse into the past by showing us what people were purchasing, what they were eating, and what they were wearing. They show us where people were shopping, the types of businesses that existed in the city, and how much things cost. They help us fill in the picture of what everyday life was like for those whose actions created our modern world.

This 1908 Bell bill shows that Archbishop McEvay paid $1.05 for calls to Hamilton, Guelph and Niagara Falls in the month of August.

Archbishop McEvay Fonds: ME AA06.12 

In 1908 Archbishop McEvay bought a Singer sewing machine for $32.00. Today, their sewing machines cost anywhere from $100 - $1000. The top of the line model even has an LCD touch screen!

Archbishop McEvay Fonds: ME AA06.14

Over the course of September, 1908, Archbishop McEvay bought peaches, pears, grapes, apples, oysters and salmon from Gallagher's Fruit and Oyster House, and he only spent a grand total of $5.85. If you can tell us what the first two items he bought were, you win a prize!

Archbishop McEvay Fonds: ME AA06.25

In 1908 you could buy a rug and a mattress for $9.25 from The J. F. Brown Company. The J.F. Brown site is now a heritage building at 193 Yonge St., across from the Eaton Centre.

Archbishop McEvay Fonds: ME AA06.31

$35.50 for carriage repairs at The Enright Shoeing Forge in December, 1909. Very important to maintain your means of transportation!

Archbishop McEvay Fonds ME AA06.78

We take ice for granted now. We can just reach into the freezer or buy a big bag from the store if necessary year round. In 1910, Archbishop McEvay paid $8.00 for a four month supply of ice cut from Lake Simcoe.

Archbishop McEvay Fonds: ME AA06.88

$4.00 for office supplies from Grand & Toy in 1910.

Archbishop McEvay Fonds: ME AA06.146

"2 to Depot - 1 home" $1.00 in 1901 for Archbishop O'Connor

Archbishop O'Connor Fonds: O AC01.01

Some of you might remember shopping at Eatons. In 1899 you might have paid $27.00 for 28 yards of carpet.

Archbishop Walsh Fonds: W AA11.02

Only $35.00 for a brass bed in 1899 from the Schomberg Furniture Company.

Archbishop O'Connor Fonds: O AC01.01

Rye, Sherry Wine and Claret purchased from George J. Foy, Importer of Wines, Liquors and Cigars in 1899 for $6.20.

Archbishop O'Connor Fonds: O AC01.01

$26.89 for work on the Cathedral by William Simpson in 1902. The receipt is signed off on by the architect, A.W. Holmes.

Archbishop O'Connor Fonds: O AC01.01

Bishop Power paid £3.40 for various items of clothing from Walter MacFarlane in 1844, including 12 nightcaps, 4 pairs of cashmere hose, and 5 India handkerchiefs.

Bishop Power Fonds: P AD01.04

The bill for Archbishop Walsh's funeral includes charges for washing and dressing remains, shaving, embalming, a purple silk plush casket, coachmen and footmen in livery, and other things. The total came to almost $800.00. Rosar-Morrison Funeral Home still exists on Sherbourne St. in Toronto.

Archbishop Walsh Fonds: W AA11.02

Friday, 1 January 2016

The Beauty and 'Magic' of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Happy New Year! Our first post of 2016 is inspired by the Blessed Virgin Mary, whose feast is celebrated on January 1st.

The images below are from a set of magic lantern slides that were donated by the estate of Monsignor Joseph O'Neill. The slides are hand coloured reproductions of artwork depicting the Blessed Virgin and were probably produced between 1915 and 1930.

Magic lanterns were originally created in the 17th century using hand painted slides, well before the invention of photography. They were used to entertain or educate audiences, who were wowed by the 'magic' pictures. The slides portrayed a wide variety of subject matter, including travel destinations, biblical scenes or art. Many even contained a narrative. Sets of slides were often sold with an accompanying text to be read along with each frame. They could even be set to music. Although the technology changed over time, magic lanterns were in use until the early 20th century. The images below were selected from a group of slides that was likely sold as an educational set.

Click here or here for more information about the magic lantern.

Photographs Special Collection
PH95/8S, 18S, 26S, 29S

Photographs Special Collection
PH95/13S, 14S, 23S, 25S

Photographs Special Collection
PH95/17S, 19S, 20S, 2S

Photographs Special Collection