Friday, 26 May 2017

Papal Audience Protocol

Papal audiences have been coming up in the news lately. Meeting such an important figure must be nerve wracking. How are you supposed to behave? What are you supposed to wear? Luckily, protocol has been developed for such occasions. Clear expectations help to take a bit of the edge off of such anxiety-inducing meetings.

Unless you're one of the lucky few to whom le privilège du blanc applies, you are expected to dress in a certain way during a private audience. In The Church Visible, James Charles Noonan Jr. explains,
"Style and deportment at the Vatican, especially in association with a visit to the pontiff, has always been highly formal ... "Formal dress," ... for gentlemen is always the black business suit and black four-in-hand necktie. For ladies, this protocol would include the black calf- or knee-length dress with long sleeves or a black shawl that covers the arms and a black mantilla ..." (p. 203, Revised Edition) 
Here in the archives we managed to find a few photos of some Canadians lucky enough to have a private audience with a few Popes. Most of them seem to be appropriately attired:

A group visits with Pope Pius XII. Bishop Allen is seen to the left of the Pope.


PH 62/14P
ARCAT Photo Collection
Toronto Mayor Nathan Phillips and his wife Esther greeting Pope Paul VI. Doesn't she look elegant in her black mantilla?


PH 64/07CP
ARCAT Photo Collection

Mayor Phillips and Mrs. Phillips with Pope Pius XII.


PH 62/21CP
ARCAT Photo Collection

A group poses with Pope Saint John XXIII.


PH 63/12CP
ARCAT Photo Collection
 Also in the news recently was the ad limina visit to Pope Francis of the bishops of Ontario. In the archives we found an 1877 letter from the Sacrae Congregationis de Propaganda Fide with instructions for bishops during their visits.

Instructions for bishops when making their formal visit to Rome. Included are directions about what kind of information to prepare and who they need to talk to. Similar instructions are still provided to current bishops making their ad limina visit.


L RC60.08
Archbishop Lynch Fonds

Canadian bishops visit Pope Paul VI, 1965. Archbishop Pocock (coadjutor at the time) is second to the left of the Pope. These bishops are all wearing the ferraiolo (cape), but the bishops visiting this year dressed only in cassocks. Can you spot Cardinal Carter?


PH 14V/17P
ARCAT Photo Collection

So, if you're planning to visit Pope Francis, be sure to brush up on your protocol. There is even a dress code to just visit the Vatican, and it is strictly enforced by the Swiss guards. Knowing the rules ahead of time makes for a smoother and more enjoyable trip.

Friday, 19 May 2017

Don't Make Him (La)Cross(e)

This year, lacrosse is celebrating the 150th anniversary of the modern version of the game, though it existed much longer in its previous form. First Nations people were the first to play the game in what is now lower parts of Ontario and Quebec, and it became popular with European colonists in the mid-1800s. Until the 1930s, lacrosse was only played on large outdoor fields during the warmer months. Now, however, it is more commonly played indoors in unused hockey arenas, which allows for Canada’s official summer sport to also be played in the winter.

Seven lacrosse teams existed in Toronto in 1877, when the letter below was written. At the time, the Toronto Lacrosse Club (TLC) used the Jarvis Street lacrosse grounds for its games. Located on the northwest corner of Jarvis and Wellesley, the grounds are now Barbara Hall Park (formerly Cawthra Square Park, named after prominent Torontonian William Cawthra, the former owner of the property). The TLC played there from 1872 to 1890. The grounds were also used by the Toronto Baseball Club in 1885 before moving to its own stadium the following year.

In his letter, Chief Constable Frank C. Draper requested that Archbishop Lynch use a "quiet hint" to remind attendees (referring to, but not explicitly stating, the Irish) to behave themselves at the lacrosse game the next day because he did not want his officers to have to make any arrests. Though no team's fans are specifically identified in the letter, one can guess that the Chief Constable was likely talking about fans of the TLC -- that year's defending national champions!

Perhaps Draper's request was fueled by certain fans' previous bad behaviour, or perhaps the next day's game was going to be a special one. Regardless, he felt the need to write to the Archbishop about it, knowing that Lynch would be a strong influence over some of the thousands of people that would be in attendance. It is unknown if Lynch followed through with the request or if his words were heeded, but it is amusing to know that fans have always been rowdy and very passionate about their teams.

June 8th, 1877

My dear Lord Archbishop

I am informed that party feeling will run very high tomorrow at the Lacrosse grounds and I am sure you will join with me in desiring that no disturbance should take place.  I am sending a detachment of Police to the grounds, but I should like if it were possible that a sort of quiet hint were given from the Palace as to the conduct of those who intend to be present tomorrow.

I should regret, myself, very much, if the Police were called upon to make any arrests, and I always think that an ounce of precaution outweighs the pound of cure. 

I am
Your Lordships obed. servt.
Frank C. Draper, C.C.

L AH22.10
Archbishop Lynch fonds

Friday, 12 May 2017

The Lady More Brilliant than the Sun

May 13th marks the 100th anniversary of the apparitions of Fatima, as well as the canonization of Francisco and Jacinta Marto, two of the children to whom Our Lady of Fatima appeared.

The message that was given to Francisco, Jacinta, and Lucia, has been interpreted in various ways during different political climates of the 20th century, but overall she is associated with the hope for world peace. In 2000 Pope Benedict XVI (then Cardinal Ratzinger) explained,
"I would like finally to mention another key expression of the “secret” which has become justly famous: “my Immaculate Heart will triumph”. What does this mean? The Heart open to God, purified by contemplation of God, is stronger than guns and weapons of every kind. The fiat of Mary, the word of her heart, has changed the history of the world, because it brought the Saviour into the world—because, thanks to her Yes, God could become man in our world and remains so for all time. The Evil One has power in this world, as we see and experience continually; he has power because our freedom continually lets itself be led away from God. But since God himself took a human heart and has thus steered human freedom towards what is good, the freedom to choose evil no longer has the last word. From that time forth, the word that prevails is this: “In the world you will have tribulation, but take heart; I have overcome the world” (Jn 16:33). The message of Fatima invites us to trust in this promise." 
Here in the archives, we have a commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the crowning of Our Lady of Fatima as Queen of the World:

"Since after long and careful consideration we have come to the conclusion that great benefits will accrue to the church if that solidly established truth were to shine forth even more clearly to all, like a bright light placed on its pedestal, we, by our apostolic power, decree and institute the feast of Mary as Queen to be celebrated throughout the entire world every year... And likewise we command that on that same day there be renewed the consecration of the human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary, upon this there is founded a great hope that there may arise an era of happiness that will rejoice in the triumph of religion and in Christian peace. - Pius XII

PO CO16.19


Archbishop Pocock Fonds

PO CO16.19


Archbishop Pocock Fonds

This weekend, as we remember Francisco and Jacinta, Our Lady of Fatima, and our mothers, we can say this prayer as found above:

O Mary, who performed a miracle at Fatima so that all might believe, Cause us to believe!
O Mary, who gave to the world at Fatima a message of hope, Fill us with hope!
O Mary, who offered to the world at Fatima your Immaculate Heart full of grace and love, Fill us with grace and love!
O Mary, crowned at Fatima by Pius XII as Queen of the World, Be our Queen!
O Mary, proclaimed by Pope Paul as the Mother of the Church, Be our Mother!
O Mary, who promised at Fatima a period of peace to all men, Keep your promise now! Obtain peace in our families, in our nation, in the world. Amen.

Friday, 5 May 2017

Lights, Camera, Action!

Yesterday marked the 90th anniversary of the filing of the official Articles of Incorporation for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It seems only appropriate, therefore, to feature records in our collection relating to motion pictures. So make some popcorn, sit back, and enjoy the blog!

The general manager of The National Exploitation Co., W. J. Benedict, was excited to inform Archbishop McNeil about the showing of the film His Holiness: Pope Pius XI and scenes of the 26th International Eucharistic Congress in Rome at the Royal Alexandra Theatre in May 1923. He requested that the announcement be made at Sunday mass and at parochial schools to ensure that adults and children alike could enjoy the films. Note that the letterhead is specifically designed for the show.

Letter from W. J. Benedict to Abp. McNeil,
May 12, 1923

MN AH12.55
Archbishop McNeil fonds

In 1927, a film of the 28th International Eucharistic Congress in Chicago was shown at Massey Hall. Rev. T. J. Manley wrote to the Department of the Treasurer of Ontario asking for an exemption from the amusement tax, which was (and, in some provinces, it seems still is) a tax applied to motion pictures, theatre performances, etc., that was brought in as a war measure. Exemptions could be made for charitable, educational, or religious purposes, as long as receipts were provided. Provincial Treasurer J. D. Monteith informed Rev. Manley that his request had been granted. The proof was sent to the Amusement Tax Office after the showing.

Letter from J. D. Monteith to Abp. McNeil,
March 7, 1927

MN AH16.39A
Archbishop McNeil fonds

Letter from the Archbishop's Residence to Thomas Scott at the Amusement Tax Office,
April 23, 1927

MN AH16.176
Archbishop McNeil fonds

The effect of motion pictures on viewers has long been a topic of conversation, since the content of certain films is sometimes considered controversial. O. J. Silverthorne, chairman of the Motion Picture Censorship and Theatre Inspection Branch of the Treasury Department of Ontario, sent then-Archbishop McGuigan a copy of the annual report of the branch. In his letter, Silverthorne alluded to a particular discussion of interest.

Letter from O. J. Silverthorne to then-Abp. McGuigan,
June 2, 1945

MG SO06.247
Cardinal McGuigan fonds

M. E. Bruce, president of Picture Service Limited, wrote to Archbishop McNeil about the cost and distribution of his company's film, Sacrifice of the Mass. Approximately $3,000 was invested in the early 1920s, which is almost $42,360 today.

Letter from Muriel E. Bruce to Abp. McNeil,
October 4, 1922

MN AH11.30
Archbishop McNeil fonds

In 1936, Pope Pius XI wrote an encyclical, Vigilanti Cura, on motion pictures to the Archbishops and Bishops of the United States. It was sent to the archbishop with a cover letter.

Copy of a cover letter from Abp. Pizzardo to then-Abp. McGuigan,
July 6, 1936

MG RC188.03
Cardinal McGuigan fonds

Encyclical letter on motion pictures of Pope Pius XI,
promulgated on June 29, 1936

MG PS118.01
Cardinal McGuigan fonds

From page 10:

"Everyone knows what damage is done to the soul by bad motion pictures. They are occasions of sin; they seduce young people along the ways of evil by glorifying the passions; they show life under a false light; they cloud ideals; they destroy pure love, respect for marriage, affection for the family. They are capable also of creating prejudices among individuals and misunderstandings among nations, among social classes, among entire races.

On the other hand, good motion pictures are capable of exercising a profoundly moral influence upon those who see them. In addition to affording recreation, they are able to arouse noble ideals of life, to communicate valuable conceptions, to impart a better knowledge of the history and the beauties of the Fatherland and of other countries, to present truth and virtue under attractive forms, to create, or at least to favor understanding among nations, social classes and races, to champion the cause of justice, to give new life to the claims of virtue, and to contribute positively to the genesis of a just social order in the world."