Friday, 21 October 2016

Sweet Smell of Success: Senator Frank P. O'Connor

On October 20, 1913, the first Laura Secord Candy Store opened at 354 Yonge St. To celebrate this delicious occasion, this week’s blog is dedicated to the founder of Laura Secord, Frank P. O’Connor. O’Connor named his store after the woman known for her courageous efforts to warn the British of an impending American attack one hundred years earlier during the War of 1812. Over subsequent years, O’Connor opened many locations across Canada and the US, where it was known as Fanny Farmer Candy Stores. This business venture made him a multimillionaire.
Portrait of Senator Frank P. O'Connor

PH 09/44P

A man of little fanfare, O’Connor was also known for his philanthropy. In the 1920s, he donated $125,000 to St. Michael’s College for their building fund. In August 1935, he gifted $500,000 to the Archdiocese of Toronto, which was put into a trust fund administered by Cardinal McGuigan. This money paid off the entire debt of the Archdiocese and supported a number of charities around the city.

Letter from Abp. Arthur Alfred Sinnott of Winnipeg to Abp. McGuigan about O'Connor's gift
August 12, 1935

MG FA01.29

Prime Minister W. L. Mackenzie King appointed O’Connor to the Senate in November 1935, where he represented the senatorial division of Scarborough Junction. An honour of a different kind came two years later when O'Connor was made a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Gregory the Great.

Letter from O'Connor to Fr. John V. Harris, Chancellor
May 13, 1937

MG SU28.05

Most. Rev. Antoniutti, Apostolic Delegate to Canada, with Senator O'Connor
ca. 1938

Photograph by Frederick William Lyonde

PH 67A/07P

Senator O’Connor became ill in 1938. He moved to Florida to convalesce in early 1939 before returning to Toronto in the spring. Unfortunately, his health did not improve sufficiently to allow him to attend many events.

Telegram from Abp. McGuigan to Senator O'Connor
June 25, 1939

MG SP26.15A

Senator O’Connor was a sincere, generous, and very well-respected man. He died in his Toronto home, Maryvale, on August 21, 1939.

Letter from Senator A.C. Hardy to Abp. McGuigan after Senator O'Connor's funeral
August 28, 1939

MG SP26.16

Friday, 14 October 2016

Cancellarius in Spiritualibus, Cancellarius in Temporalibus

In a busy Archdiocese like Toronto, there is a lot of administrative work to do. Issues big and small arise and need to be handled. The Archbishop can't do it all himself, so he has his auxiliary Bishops, vicars, and chancellors.

As mandated by Canon Law, the role of the chancellor is primarily record keeping:

"Canon 482 §1 In each curia a chancellor is to be appointed, whose principal office, unless particular law states otherwise, is to ensure that the acts of the curia are drawn up and dispatched, and that they are kept safe in the archive of the curia."

Historically, it has been the chancellor's job to ensure that the records and acts of the curia are properly preserved and maintained. He is therefore responsible for the archives. He also serves as a notary to authenticate documents originating from the curia.

Toronto has had over 30 chancellors since 1863. Many of the priests who served as chancellor have become auxiliary bishops as well as bishops of other dioceses. Two of Toronto's current auxiliaries, Bishop Nguyen and Bishop Boissonneau have previously served as chancellor. 

The first known chancellor in Toronto, Fr. Jean-Francois Jamot, was appointed by Archbishop Lynch in 1863. He went on to become Vicar Apostolic of Northern Canada in 1874, and was appointed the first Bishop of Peterborough in 1882.

Jean-Francois Jamot in attendance at the First Provincial Council of Toronto as Bishop of Peterborough.

PH 04/10P
ARCAT Photograph Collection

"August 26th, 1863. Very Rev Father Jamot, Dean of Barrie, was made pastor of the Cathedral, and Chancellor of the Archdiocese."

From the Acta of Archbishop Lynch
L AA05.172
Archbishop Lynch Fonds
The early chancellor dealt with all kinds of records: financial, property, sacramental, canonical. 

"Toronto: Accounts of Cathedraticum, dispensations, propagation & ecclesiastical education. Monies Received."

Fr. Jamot's record notebook, 1863-1873.
HO 03.20
ARCAT Holograph Collection

Inside Fr. Jamot's Notebook.

HO 03.20
ARCAT Holograph Collection

Over time, as the archdiocese grew, the job got too big for one person. The position of vice-chancellor was used, as well as the positions of chancellor in spiritualibus and chancellor in temporalibus.

Presently, we have a Chancellor of Spiritual Affairs, and a Chancellor of Temporal Affairs. The Chancellor of Spiritual Affairs is responsible for the archives. He is charged with ensuring that sacraments are properly recorded. It is through his mandate that we inspect and microfilm parish sacramental registers and advise parishes on their correct keeping. He is in charge of dispensations and faculties, and of keeping and ensuring that the laws and norms of the archdiocese are followed. He ensures that the archdiocese and its priests act in accordance with the laws of the Church. He must be an expert in both canon law and theology.

In Toronto, the Chancellor of Temporal Affairs is a lay person. He is in charge of administering the temporal goods of the church. He oversees the departments that deal with finances, investments, personnel, properties, and legal matters. He must be an expert in the world of business administration.

Having these two chancellors allows the archbishop and the bishops to work on the big picture questions like the direction of the archdiocese. You know what they say! Behind every great bishop is a great chancellor.

Friday, 7 October 2016

Your Chance to #AskAnArchivist

Wednesday, October 5th, was Ask An Archivist Day. It allowed anyone with a Twitter account the opportunity to ask archives-related questions with the hashtag #AskAnArchivist. Archivists from a number of archives would monitor the questions and reply accordingly.

Archivists are contacted regularly by researchers with all sorts of inquiries, and the Archives of the Archdiocese of Toronto is no different. Many researchers are looking for information for their books or theses. Subjects include but are certainly not limited to religious orders, Catholic education, immigrant populations (Irish, Italian, Polish, etc.), biographies, Toronto history, and cemeteries. Here are a handful of documents that have been found for researchers at this archives.

Copy of a letter to Angus MacDonnell from Bishop Power, December 11, 1844,
in which he mentions a petition of some people in Toronto about the school system

P AA10.06

Letter to the Press from Abp. Lynch on the state of Ireland,
  published in the "Irish Canadian" of February 15, 1883

L AE06.28

Letter to Abp. McNeil from Catherine de Hueck, July 23, 1931

MN AP02.164

Letter from Frances Teresa Ball, the Reverend Mother Superior of Loretto, to Bishop Power, July 20, 1847

Religious Order fonds, Sisters of Loretto (I.B.V.M.), General Correspondence, 1816-1849

Letter from Abp. McEvay to Sir Wilfrid Laurier, June 20, 1908,
in which he talks about Toronto
ME AA02.26

Please visit Twitter here if you'd like to see what archivists got up to on Ask An Archivist Day this year.

Thursday, 29 September 2016

St. Michael’s Cathedral: Rededication of a Splendid and Noble Edifice

On September 29th, 1848, the Cathedral of the Diocese of Toronto was dedicated  to St. Michael by Bishop Ignace Bourget of Montreal. This Thursday, after six years of renovations and 168 years to the day later, it will be rededicated.

Original letterbook entry noting the dedication of the Cathedral.

September 29, 1848
Letterbook Collection, LB01.181

Second page of above entry.

Letterbook Collection, LB01.181 

L’an mil huit cent quarante huit, le vingt neuf Septembre,
Nous soussigné Evêque de Montréal, sur l’invitation de Mr J. J. Hay, ArchiDiacre, et Administrateur de ce Diocèse pendant la Vacance du siege Episcopal, avons, en presence des [?] et Révd mes R. Gaulin, Evêque de Kingston, P. Phelan, Evêque de Carrhae et Coadjuteur de Kingston, J. C. Prince, Evêque de Martyropolis et Coadjuteur de Montréal, et Jos. Bruno Guigues, Evêque de Bytown, et assisté de Mr. J. J. Vinet, Curé du Sault-au Récollet et de Mr. Madden Prêtre et Professeur du Collège de Kingston, consacré l’Eglise Cathédrale de cette ville, avec le maître autel, et y avons depose les Reliques de St Clément et de St Pierre Martyres; un nombreux clergé du Diocès et des Diocèses – Voisins, ainsi qu’un grand nombre de pieux Fidèles assistants à cette cérémonie.

Fait et passé à Toronto les jour et an que dessus, tout les dits Seigneurs Evêques et les Prêtres assistants signé avec nous.

+Remi Ev. De Kingston
+J.C. Ev. De Martyropolis
+Jos. Eugène Ev. De Bytown
+Ig. Ev. De Montréal

P. Lafrance


The year one thousand eight hundred forty eight, the twenty ninth September, We undersigned Bishop of Montreal, on the invitation of Monseigneur J. J. Hay, Archdeacon, and Administrator of this diocese during the vacancy of the Episcopal seat, did, in presence of the [?] and Reverend Misters R. Gaulin, Bishop of Kingston, P. Phelan, Bishop of Carrhae and Coadjutor of Kingston, J. C. Prince, Bishop of Martyropolis and Coadjutor of Montreal, and Jos. Bruno Guigues, Bishop of Bytown, and assisted by Monseigneur J. J. Vinet, priest of Sault-au Récollet and of Monseigneur Madden priest and professor of the College of Kingston, consecrated the church cathedral of this city, with the high  altar, and deposited the relics of St. Clement and of St. Peter Martyrs; a number of clergy of the diocese and of the neighbouring Dioceses, and a large number of pious faithful assistants at this ceremony.

Done and passed at Toronto the day and year above, all the said lords, bishops and the priests assistants signed with us.

+Remi Ev. De Kingston
+J.C. Ev. De Martyropolis
+Jos. Eugène Ev. De Bytown
+Ig. Ev. De Montréal

P. Lafrance

St. Michael's Cathedral has been the centre of the spiritual life of Catholic Toronto for almost 170 years. Starting in 1845 at Bishop Michael Power's initiation, the city's faithful put their blood, sweat, and hard-earned wages into its construction.

ARCAT Parish Collection, St. Michael's Cathedral, Newsclippings
Toronto Mirror, September 7, 1848

Dedication of St. Michael’s Cathedral, Toronto
The Solemn Consecration and Opening for Divine Service of this noble Edifice, now erecting on Church Street, will take place on Michaelmas Day next, Friday the 29th instant. 
Several Bishops, as well of Canada as of the neighbouring Union, will be present: the august ceremonies will, therefore, be performed with all the dignity and grandeur which the Catholic Church employs upon these solemn occasions. 
As amongst the Dignitaries who will attend there are several who are well known for their learning and eloquence, there can be no hesitation in promising able expositions of the Catholic Faith and Discipline, in Discourses which will please, instruct, and edify.
It is the intention of the Building Committee to issue Tickets of Admission, for the Friday of the Consecration, and also for the Sunday following. Their chief motive in doing this, is to secure, as far as possible, the comfort of those who attend the services. The tickets are placed as low as a Dollar, for the Nave, or main body of the Church, and Half a Dollar for the Side-Aisles; but as there will doubtless be many persons present, who will be desirous of contributing more than the small sum paid for their Tickets of Admission, a Collection will be taken up in the usual manner, at the Offertory, on each day of Service; the proceeds of which, as well as of the tickets, will be applied towards the liquidation of the immense debt contracted for the erection of that splendid edifice.
Tickets can be procured at any of the Catholic Stores on King Street, and at the Episcopal Palace on Church Street.
Toronto, September 7, 1848

The city was a very different place in the 1840s, and the Cathedral has been witness to its growth and change. It has been the location of thousands of baptisms, weddings, and funerals. It is where the city has come together to worship, to celebrate, to mourn.

Looking north from St. Lawrence Market, with St. Michael's in the background.

Photo by William Notman via Wikimedia Commons

St. Michael's Cathedral as in 1870

From Landmarks of Toronto: A Collection of Historical Sketches of the Old Town of York from 1792 until 1837, and of Toronto from 1834 to 1904 by John Ross Robertson, p. 308.
John Ross Robertson describes the Cathedral this way:

"St. Michael's Cathedral, modelled after York Minster, of England, is of the early decorated Gothic style of architecture of the 14th century, which is the adaptation of the classical Roman style to the requirements of Christian worship. The length of the nave is proportioned to its width, the height of the pointed arches and the predominancy of vertical lines give the interior of the cathedral a very artistic appearance. Then the innumerable graceful and fanciful spires and pinnacles, elaborately carved and gilded that carry the eye aloft until it is lost in the tracing and the variegated decorations of the arches and vaults commingling produce a pictorial effect. Throw upon this architectural panorama of beauty and grace a flood of sunlight that is changed in its transit through the many-hued colours of the windows until every beam becomes a rainbow of loveliness, and every flash of light a gleam of glory and the sight becomes unutterably entrancing."

The rededication and reopening of the mother church of the Archdiocese of Toronto on Thursday, September 29, 2016 is cause for great rejoicing and reflection. We are not only celebrating the restoration of this Gothic jewel, but also the reopening of a gathering place in the heart of the city of Toronto. The rededication of St. Michael’s Cathedral reaffirms a Catholic presence in the largest city in Canada and its intention to remain for another 168 years and beyond.

Friday, 23 September 2016

Feast of the Canadian Martyrs and the Church of the Gesù, Montreal

Monday, September 26 is the Feast of the Canadian Martyrs. Saints Jean de Brébeuf, Gabriel Lalemant, Charles Garnier, Antoine Daniel, Noël Chabanel, Isaac Jogues, René Goupil, and Jean de Lalande were all members of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and missionaries to New France in the early to mid-1600s.

Relics of Saints Charles Garnier, Gabriel Lalemant, and Jean de Brebeuf can be found at the Church of the Gesù (L'eglise du Gesù) in Montreal, which I had an opportunity to visit this summer. This impressive church was built as a chapel for the Jesuits and their students at College Sainte-Marie. Both the college and the church were built after the Jesuits returned to Canada in the 1840s. It is modeled after the Jesuit church in Rome of the same name in which St. Ignatius Loyola is buried.

I spent quite a bit of time at Le Gesù taking in the detail of the altar of the Canadian Martyrs located in the the North transept.

ARCAT staff photo taken June 2, 2016.
ARCAT staff photo taken June 2, 2016.
ARCAT staff photo taken June 2, 2016.

The church is notable for the use of the techniques trompe l'oeil and grisaille, which I found lovely. Though the ceiling and walls look as if they have sculpted elements, they are cleverly painted to appear three dimensional.
ARCAT staff photo taken June 2, 2016.
ARCAT staff photo taken June 2, 2016.
ARCAT staff photo taken June 2, 2016.
ARCAT staff photo taken June 2, 2016.
For more information about the Church of the Gesù, check the Archdiocese of Montreal's archives website, Info-Archives as well as the website of the Jesuits in Canada.

You can learn more about the Canadian Martyrs closer to home at Martyrs' Shrine in Midland, Ontario. Canada’s national shrine of the Canadian Jesuit Martyrs is located on a hill beside the historic site of Sainte-Marie-Among-the-Hurons where the Canadian Martyrs worked and where some were martyred. Explore the website of Martyrs' Shrine for detailed stories of each martyr.

Please remember St. Jean de Brébeuf, St. Gabriel Lalemant, St. Charles Garnier, St. Antoine Daniel, St. Noël Chabanel, St. Isaac Jogues, St. René Goupil, and St. Jean de Lalande in your prayers on the feast day of the Canadian Martyrs, Monday, September 26.

Friday, 16 September 2016

Taking a Closer Look at the Chasuble

This week, we'd thought we'd feature a few interesting chasubles that are in ARCAT's collection. For those of you who are unfamiliar with the chasuble, it is the liturgical vestment that is worn over other vestments, such as an alb, an amice, and a stole. Chasubles in the "Roman" style have a fiddleback shape in the front, whereas more contemporary chasubles are oval-shaped with a round hole in the middle for the head to pass through.

Chasubles come in many different colours, and some of them are very decorated with embroidery and needlework. Some are used for daily use, whereas others are for specific occasions. Below you will find five examples from here in the Archives.

This is a contemporary chasuble that was worn by Cardinal Ambrozic during a World Youth Day event in 2002. It is embroidered with grapes, wheat sheaves, leaves, and a cross.
Textile Artifact TX.25a

Closeup of the detail on Textile Artifact TX.25a

This funeral chasuble is made of heavy grey wool with grey darker trim. The purple felt applique contains embroidery.
Textile Artifact TX.50a
Closeup of the detail on Textile Artifact TX.50a

Donated by St. Joseph's Convent in 1988, this reversible chasuble was part of the Mass Kit used by the C.S.J. in teaching school children about liturgical objects.
Front and back of Textile Artifact TX12.a

This is an example of a wartime Chaplain's chasuble. It is a reversible set.
Textile Artifact TX.49a
Reversible side of Textile Artifact TX.49a

This chasuble from the early 20th century was removed from St. Margaret's Parish, Midland, after a fire in the 1980s. Though a bit stained, the chasuble and its detail are still impressive.
Front and back of Textile Artifact TX.08a
Closeup of the detail on Textile Artifact TX.08a
Closeup of the detail on Textile Artifact TX.08a

Friday, 9 September 2016

Studying the early 20th century way

As many students return to the classroom this week, we wanted to share what it looked like to hit the books in the early 20th century. The photos below were taken while their subjects were studying at St. Augustine's Seminary in Scarborough.

Fr. Kirby as a Student
PH 26S/73P

Gerald Joseph Ignatius Kirby was ordained in 1916 and became Monsignor Kirby in 1946. As a young priest he was Chancellor and Secretary to Archbishop Neil McNeil and Rector of St. Michael's Cathedral. He also served as a Diocesan Consultor, was the Spiritual Director at St. Augustine's Seminary, and Dean of the West Toronto Deanery; to name just a few of the offices he held.

Hugh Gallagher of Orillia
PH 26S/80P

Hugh Francis Gallagher was ordained in 1924 and likewise had a storied life as a priest in the Archdiocese of Toronto. Most notably, he served as Director of the Catholic Charity Bureau in Toronto from 1932 to 1946. This body later became Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Toronto.

You may be using an entirely different type of notebook, but we hope these priestly examples of good study habits inspire you to work hard.

ARCAT wishes all students young and old the best with their studies this year!