Friday, 8 December 2017

The Hand of God Has Been Laid Heavily Upon Us: 100 Years Since the Halifax Explosion

100 years ago this week, Halifax was devastated after a collision in the harbour sparked a fire aboard a munitions ship. The resulting blast was the most powerful explosion in history before the Second World War. Approximately 2,000 were killed, 9,000 were injured, and 1,249 buildings were destroyed. Windows were shattered up to 100 kilometres away.

In the following weeks, Archbishop McNeil (who was originally from Cape Breton) received letters describing the destruction. Archbishop Edward McCarthy of the Archdiocese of Halifax sent the following after receiving a $2000 donation from the Archdiocese of Toronto:

Letter from Halifax Archbishop Edward McCarthy to Archbishop McNeil describing the devastation of the blast.

14 December 1917

MN TA01.20
Archbishop McNeil Fonds


"Halifax, Dec. 14th 1917

"His Grace - The archbishop of Toronto

"My dear Lord Archbishop,

"How shall we ever thank you sufficiently for your kind words of sympathy, and still kinder deed in sending us $2000 for the relief of the sufferers in St. Joseph's parish? They were both sorely needed. No one can have any idea of the extent of the calamity or of the gruesomeness of the sights but those who were eyewitness of the scene. I shall never forget it as long as I live. It simply baffles description. St. Joseph's parish is almost wiped out. Church, presbytery, Convent, two parish halls and schools, all destroyed beyond repair. St. Patrick's Church, with its beautiful Munich windows, is badly damaged. The whole roof will have to come down. In the Cathedral there is not a pane of glass left, and the worst of it all is, we can claim no insurance. Every Catholic Institution - the orphanage, seminary, Home of the Good Shepherd, Infants' Home, St. Teresa's Home for servant-girls out of employment, Sacred Heart Convent, Infirmary, all have been badly riddled though not beyond repair. Certainly for some strange purpose, which we cannot understand, the hand of God has been laid heavily upon us. About 6000 houses, they think, have been either leveled to the ground, or impossible of repair. This, of course, means that 20,000 people are left homeless, and that we will have to clothe, house and feed them for the winter. The number of dead is estimated at 2000, and the wounded are nearly 3000. We beg your Grace to be good enough to convey to the good people of your Archdiocese our hearty thanks for the very substantial and generous help they have sent. May God reward you and them a thousand fold for it all.

I am, Your Grace, Most gratefully yours in Xto.
+Edward McCarthy"


Archbishop McNeil's uncle wrote to him from Halifax on January 6, 1918:

"My Dear Nephew,

"My first word is to wish your people and diocese, your clergy and yourself a very happy New Year in the best sense of the term. We are in a mess yet in this city. I drove through the ruined district today and am convinced I understated the situation in my letters to you and Mary. How any escaped from the destroyed and wrecked houses it is difficult to explain from any human point of view. It is known that in some instances parties living in flat roofed two storey houses made their way to safety through breaks in the upper floor and the roof which was down so near the ground that they were able to step from the roof on to the adjoining street. All school houses suffered severely, and several have been condemned - others are so much damaged that the restoration will cost almost as much as rebuilding. Several churches are beyond repair too...

"The chair I sat in when the explosion occurred was cut by glass an inch long and nearly a quarter deep and that across the grain too, right back of where my head was. Mrs. M is well otherwise than in her eyesight which has grown so dim she cannot come down stairs without help and guidance. About the end of the month she will be surgically healed and we are all hopeful of best results - though at her age success does not always follow.

"Annie's sister ... is recovering the last few days nicely but will feel the loss of her eye and the cuts on her nose and brow keenly. Her son Dick has no doubt a sightless eye - besides a loss of over $3000 in property. His elder brother is laid up from a blow received in the explosion which he did not feel at first and Dick's 9 year old boy had an eye removed. The incidents make us more thankful for the protection God accorded us." (MN AA03.37A Archbishop McNeil Fonds)

It is difficult to imagine what Haligonians went through that day and in the months that followed, but many institutions have produced resources to help us remember them. For more information, check out the website of the Archives of the Archdiocese of Halifax-Yarmouth dedicated to remembering the explosion. The Nova Scotia Archives has many online resources available, and CBC has an interactive website telling the story of the accident.

Friday, 1 December 2017

Can anyone identify this object?

You might say that our post this week is a little bit out of the ordinary.

This week, instead of featuring something from our own Archives, we are excited to feature an item from the Archives of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops.

And the object itself is an unusual one.


Part of the CCCB Archives, Provenance and date unknown.

It is made of wood, possibly maple, and is 36.5 cm high. At its widest point, it is about 25 cm wide.

The metal lettering reads “Veillez et priez” (it is missing the “t” in et). These are the instructions given to the apostles in the Garden of Gethsemane in Matthew 26:41:“Stay awake and pray.”
 

Close up of the painting . The bottom of the metal frame around the image has broken off.
The text beneath the image reads “Mon Ch. Letaille et Fils. Edit Pontifx sucr Paris, Pl 827".

Part of the CCCB Archives, Provenance and date unknown.

The painting shows Jesus and a sleeping apostle in the Garden of Gethsemane. The caption reads “Celui qui doit me trahir approche. Et tu dors.” Literally, “He who is to betray me is approaching, and you are asleep.”



A demonstration of how individual balls are manually dropped into the instrument, facilitating wakefulness and mindfulness in prayer.

Part of the CCCB Archives, Provenance and date unknown.
 
It includes 8 balls, approximately 2 cm in diameter. They have numbers and letters and in fact appear to be bingo tokens. One drops the ball in at the top and it comes out at the bottom. The thought that they may have replaced a lost set of 10 black balls and 1 white one, suggests that it may be an instrument for praying the rosary, one that forces the praying person to keep awake by the physical movement of taking a ball from the bottom and putting it in the hole at the top.


Special thanks to CCCB Archivist Bruce Henry, who piqued our interest and allowed us to post his photographs and description.

Friday, 24 November 2017

Forbidden Whiskers?

With today's post we jump on the Movember bandwagon!

Since 2011, Canadians have been the largest contributors to Movember charities, which organize the annual growing of moustaches during the month of November to raise awareness of men's health issues.

At ARCAT, we've had little cause to glorify the moustache because the historical clergy photographs in our collection feature, almost universally, clean-shaven priests. Imagine our excitement this week when, while perusing a carte de visite album, we came across a portrait of a moustachioed gentleman!

Upon closer inspection, however, it appeared to be a "faux mo" drawn onto the surface of the photograph in crayon. Vanity or sabotage? Unfortunately, we have very little contextual information for this album and the identity of the subject is unknown. The style of collar and shirt is not exactly clerical, according to our early diocesan regulations concerning dress code.

Photographs Special Collection, PH 25/23AL

Carte de visite portrait of an unidentified gentleman, New York, ca. 1870.  The moustache has been drawn with crayon, perhaps to enhance what the camera did not quite capture. The straight collar suggests that the sitter is a priest, though the pleated silk shirt seems a little too fancy for one from our diocese.


Amazingly, the same album yielded a carte de visite portrait of a bearded priest taken in Orangeville, Ontario.

Photographs Special Collection, PH 25/23AL

Carte de visite portrait of an unidentified priest, ca. 1870, sporting a very rare beard. Though the photo was taken in Orangeville, Ontario, the priest does not seem to be any of those early clerics appointed to St. Timothy's Parish.

Throughout the history of the Church, there have been bearded popes and saints. However, the fact that facial hair is rarely seen on clergy during the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries begs the question of whether whiskers were canonically forbidden. The 1917 Code of Canon Law required priests to have simple hairstyles, but did not strictly forbid beards (136§1). However, bishops were free to interpret and enforce the law more strictly. The current 1983 Code does not address the issue of hairstyle or beards.

In times when moustaches were in fashion (for example, the Victorian period during which our diocese was established), priests would have been discouraged from such a show of vanity and singularity. A more thorough answer to the question of forbidden whiskers is answered here.

In the archives, we have a single document that addresses restrictions on beards. It is an excerpt from a published article that was copied and sent to Archbishop Lynch around 1863. At issue was the growing tendency of Bavarian priests to wear beards. The nuncio in Munich issued a letter to all local bishops condemning the practice on the grounds of unity and humility.

Archbishop Lynch fonds, Roman Correspondence, LRC45.01

As cited at the bottom of the second page, this is an excerpt from a published letter distributed to Bavarian bishops by the nuncio to Munich in 1863 regarding their bearded clergy.  The letter appeared in Revue des sciences ecclésiastiques, Volume 8, pp 80-81. It was copied and sent to Archbishop Lynch.

[Translated from the French and Latin] 
"Some of the Bavarian clergy seems to have forgotten the laws regarding the obligation to wear clerical garb...For ten years, the use was even introduced to wear beards. The nuncio in Munich, by order of His Holiness, just sent to the archbishops and bishops of Bavaria a letter in which he condemns this abuse, and calls for effective measures to bring its removal. The text follows:

....the discipline of the unity, and the perfect degree with the Church of Rome, is the mistress of the conformity of the man in all things and therefore also in the habit and the tonsure of the clergy is to be observed, or, if necessary, may be restored....."


It should be noted that priests in the Eastern Catholic rites are required by custom to wear beards, as well as some religious orders, such as the Franciscan Capuchins. In fact, when the second bishop of Toronto, Most Reverend Armand de Charbonnel, resigned the bishopric and returned to his native France, he joined the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin and grew a distinctive beard.

Graphics Special Collection, PH21-02SK and PH21-03SK

Original pencil drawings by E. Fattori of Most Reverend Armand-François-Marie de Charbonnel with and without a beard.  On the left, he is depicted clean shaven as the second bishop of Toronto (1850-1860); right, with a beard typical of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (ca. 1875), the community he joined upon return to his native France.

ARCAT Reference Library, 282.092 CAU 1931

Photo of former Bishop de Charbonnel as a Franciscan Capuchin, 1876.  Published in
Causse, Candide. Vie de Monseigneur de Charbonnel, évêque de Toronto, 1931.

Photographs Special Collection, PH 24A\20P

Passport with photograph of Rev. Stephen Auad, 1920. Father Auad was born in Syria and ordained in the Maronite rite. He wears a beard as customarily required of Eastern Rite Catholic clergy.
Rev. Auad came to Canada in 1920 and was appointed pastor of St. Agnes Parish, Toronto (1921), St. Mary of the Angels Parish, Toronto (1924), Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish, Toronto (1927), Christ the King Parish, Etobicoke (1938)


Today, growing facial hair is a matter of personal choice for any diocesan priest. We have photographic evidence of quite a few seminarians sporting moustaches in the 1980s. Prior to that, they had to look forward to wearing faux mos during the annual Christmas play:

St. Augustine's Seminary Photograph's Collection, PH26, Series 2.1

Label on verso: "Christmas Play by China Mission Seminary, 1936"

Friday, 17 November 2017

Leonardo and the Viaticum Cabinet

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Salvator Mundi, painted circa 1500. Oil on walnut panel.
Christie's, New York

 This painting by Leonardo da Vinci was auctioned on 15 November 2017 at Christie’s in New York.  Twenty minutes into the sale, a winning bid of $400 million USD was entered by an anonymous buyer. After associated fees, the sale price of over $450,000,000 is the highest ever paid for a work of art at auction.  

The big news in the art world this week was the sale of Salvator Mundi, the recently rediscovered painting by Leonardo da Vinci, for a record-setting $450 million USD. It is one of sixteen extant works attributed to the Renaissance master, as well as the last known Leonardo painting that was held in private hands. It remains to be seen whether the anonymous new owner will allow it to be displayed for public consumption.

Salvator Mundi, "Saviour of the World", depicts a frontal portrait of Jesus Christ dressed in contemporary garb with his right hand raised in blessing and his left holding a transparent orb. The same mysterious quality that has made Leonardo's Mona Lisa the most recognizable painting in the world is here captured in the otherworldly gaze of Christ's amber eyes.

Painted around 1500, the work once belonged to King Charles I of England. As the painting changed hands and deteriorated it was repeatedly touched up - a common practice at the time. Eventually, the overpainted original was believed to be one of the many copies produced by other artists. In 1958, it sold for only £45.

The story of Salvator Mundi's rediscovery, which began in 2005, is a fascinating read.

So fascinating, in fact, that it made us wonder if there was a hidden Leonardo painting lurking in the bowels of the Archives. Had any of our bishops snapped up an Old Master of questionable provenance en route to their ad limina visit?

The results of our search were, sadly if inevitably, much more humble. We turned up a single reproduction of the second most famous painting in the world: Leonardo's The Last Supper. Hardly surprising, given that it is believed to be the most mass-reproduced work of all time.

Top: Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495-1498, oil/tempera on plaster
Below: Reproduction of The Last Supper, viaticum cabinet detail, ARCAT Artifacts Special Collection, AF.285

The Last Supper was painted on the refectory wall of Santa Maria delle Grazie convent in Milan. Leonardo used experimental techniques and paint, and the huge mural started to deteriorate almost as soon as it was finished. It has suffered under the hands of many would-be restorers over the centuries. Further deterioration occurred when the refectory was used as a stable by Napoleon's troops and when its roof was torn away by Allied bombing during WWII, which left the paint exposed to the elements for several years.

Suffice it to say, both the original painting and our reproduction have suffered from environmental exposure.

It was a rediscovery for us nonetheless. This Last Supper reproduction had originally been described in our catalogue as part of an ambry - a recessed cupboard in a church used for storing holy oils. However, when we pulled the artifact out of storage, it was clear that it was not an ambry. Further research led us to conclude it was, in fact, a viaticum cabinet, also known and a "sick call box," or a "last rites cabinet."

Viaticum refers to the Eucharist given to a sick or dying person as part of the last rites. The Latin meaning is "provision for a journey"; this final Eucharist is the spiritual nourishment that will fortify a dying person on their passage from this world to the next. Before Vatican II, it was common for Catholic households to have a viaticum cabinet with all the provisions for a visiting priest to administer last rites stored inside.

Artfacts Special Collection, AF.285
Viaticum cabinet

Why settle for one Old Master when you can have two?
The upper portion of the cabinet holds a statuette of the Pietà, its composition appropriated from Michelangelo's masterpiece, which resides in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. 

Artfacts Special Collection, AF.285

The Last Supper adorns a door that opens to reveal a storage compartment.
Before Vatican II, it was common for Catholic households to have a viaticum cabinet with all the provisions for a visiting priest to administer last rites stored inside.

This particular cabinet was donated to ARCAT by a family in 2004. It seems to be a popular model mass-produced in the 1930s and 1940s and sold through ecclesiastical supply catalogs. You can see similar examples here.*

Out of the box, this viaticum cabinet would have been stocked with supplies, including a glass bottle for holy water, a paten, a box of absorbant cotton and an instruction booklet. However, over time, families would use the storage compartment for keeping accumulated religious items, such as medals, rosaries, candles and holy cards.

Artfacts Special Collection, AF.289

This viaticum cabinet came equipped with a glass bottle with the instructions:
"FOR HOLY WATER / KEEP CONSTANTLY FILLED"

Artfacts Special Collection, AF.286 to AF.292

Families often used the storage compartment for keeping accumulated religious items, such as these medals and rosaries that were found inside our viaticum cabinet. 

Though it's not a priceless work of ark, this viaticum cabinet is a piece of Catholic material and domestic culture and an interesting rediscovery at ARCAT.


* Sally M. Promey, "Viaticum, Last Rites Cabinet, Sick Call Set," Constellation, in Conversations: An Online Journal of the Center for the Study of Material and Visual Cultures of Religion (2014), doi:10.22332/con.cons.2014.1




Friday, 10 November 2017

We Remember

At 5:00 a.m. the morning of November 11,1918, an armistice agreement was signed between the Germans and Allied forces, who had been at war since 1914. The agreement, signed in a railroad car outside Compiégne, France, was to put an end to "the war to end all wars" until a peace treaty could be ratified.

Here in the archives we have a letter written on this historic day.

First World War Fonds, FW CS01.63

Letter to Archbishop McNeil from Reverend Edward Hawks
 November 11, 1918

The letter is written to Archbishop McNeil from Reverend Edward Hawks. Reverend Hawks was a British-born Canadian serving in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia. He returned to Canada during the war to become a chaplain in the Canadian army.

He writes he is with the 5th Battalion, R.T, but does not say where he is currently stationed. He tells Archbishop McNeil that he has been to the front and was part of the great advance, but does not say which advance this is.

He worries peace might never come.

And yet, Reverend Hawks writes that there is a rumour spreading through his battalion of an immediate armistice.

We know now that it was no rumour at all. On the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the armistice agreement signed earlier that day went into effect. All battles on the Western Front were to cease. The Great War had ended.

Now, every year on November 11th we observe Remembrance Day. On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, we hold a moment of silence to pause and reflect on the sacrifices made -- in this war and the wars that followed.

This weekend our thoughts are with all the men and women who have served our country during times of war, conflict and peace.

Lest we forget.

Friday, 3 November 2017

Roman Holiday

Need to escape the cold November rain? Rome's weekend forecast calls for sunshine and highs of 21° celsius. Plan your itinerary with some suggestions from Monsignor James M. Clair, who visited the Eternal City with Cardinal McGuigan in the late 1930s.

Admire Roman engineering at the Sant'Angelo Bridge, which has spanned the River Tiber since 135 AD.

Sant'Angelo Bridge on the River Tiber

1930s
Monsignor Clair Collection

Crossing the bridge, you will find the Castel Sant'Angelo, which was completed in 139 AD as the Emperor Hadrian's mausoleum. Since then, it has been connected to St. Peter's by a protected passage, and has been a place of refuge for popes. It is topped by a statue of St. Michael, which recalls the vision that Pope Gregory the Great had in 590 AD of the archangel that signified the end of the plague. The Castel is now a museum.

Sant'Angelo Bridge, Castel Sant'Angelo, St. Peter's Basilica entrance, and the group outside the Vatican

1930s
Monsignor Clair Collection

Walk in the path of ancient Romans on the Appian Way, which is a road that was begun in 312 AD to connect Rome to regions south. 

Next take a stroll past Porta San Paolo (St. Paul's Gate). It now houses a museum, but was built in 275 AD as an entrance to the city through the Aurelian Walls. Beside it you will find the Pyramid of Cestius, which is a 12 BC burial chamber.  

The Appian Way, St. Paul's Gate, the Pyramid of Cestius, and the Papal Basilica of St. Paul's Outside-the-Walls

1930s
Monsignor Clair Collection

A short distance south, you will find the Papal Basilica of St. Paul Outside-the-Walls, which is a church built over the grave of St. Paul and consecrated in 324 AD. It has been extensively added to over the centuries.

Perhaps one of the most famous sites in Rome is the Colosseum, an amphitheatre which opened to Romans in 80 AD and could accommodate 50,000 spectators. Close by you will spot the Arch of Constantine, which is a 315 AD monument to the eponymous emperor. 

Monsignor Clair poses outside the Colosseum and at the Arch of Constantine

1930s
Monsignor Clair Collection

No visit to Rome would be complete without a stop by the Vatican and the famous St. Peter's Basilica. It was consecrated in 1626, and is the largest church in the world. 

A postcard depicting St. Peter's Basilica

For a little R&R, check out Castel Gandolfo, a former Papal retreat on Lake Albano which is now open to the public.

The gardens of Castel Gandolfo

1930s
Monsignor Clair Collection

 Don't forget to get a group shot with your friends!

Fr. E. O'Hanley, Fr. J. Crossland, Cardinal McGuigan, Fr. T. Cahmpoux, and Monsignor Clair

1930s
Monsignor Clair Collection

 Buon viaggio!


Friday, 27 October 2017

An Amicable Discussion on the Church of England and on The Reformation in General

A watershed moment in Christian History will be commemorated on October 31st. On that day 500 years ago Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of All Saints Church in Wittenberg, Germany. The document, which was intended as an academic discussion of the sale of indulgences (a reduction of time in purgatory), sparked a schism known as the Reformation which has lasted to the present.

Today, members of Protestant and Catholic Churches work together for many common goals. However, this was not always the case, as we previously explained in this post on the evolution of ecumenism. The divide wasn't just spiritual; it poured over into the political and social as well. Here in the archives, we have lots of examples of arguments written to convince people to switch teams.

This booklet regarding transubstantiation (which was a big sticking point between Catholics and Protestants) helped influence John Elmsley, who was a very influential donor in the early days of the diocese, to convert to Catholicism. Perhaps it was this paragraph that changed his mind:
"For your part at least, Sir, reflect; I conjure you, on the danger to which you are exposed by the prejudices of your education. Have the courage to emancipate yourself from them; it certainly must cost you less to quit an opinion which is not of your own choice. Imagine yourself for a moment in the midst of the synagogue where the important affair was discussed, and that you witness all that passes. You distinguish our divine Saviour surrounded by his apostles and disciples: you attentively listen with them to the words that come from his mouth, and at the at part of his discourse where he comes to the mystery, you hear the confused murmurs, and afterwards the declared opposition of the multitude. In vain does our Saviour exert himself to persuade them, by repeatedly affirming what he had just announced; the multitude remain deaf: and soon you remark the repugnance even of many of his disciples, you notice their words of contradiction, and then their entire desertion from him. on the other side you admire the firmness, the liveliness of the faith of the apostles, and what is more striking through the whole of this scene, the calm countenance and unalterable sweetness of the Man-God. All this passes before your eyes; I suppose you to be present at it. Now what are you yourself going to do? You must declare yourself. On what side will you range yourself? Will you adhere with them to your divine master? Or will you turn your back upon him with the crowd of the murmurers? You are indignant at my question: is there any room for hesitation? You say to me. Well then! Sir, take now the part that you would then decidedly have taken with the apostles. The dispute unfortunately still continues. It has been renewed for nearly three centuries with more violence than at its birth, and with still more deplorable consequences. It is no longer between the Jews and in the synagogue, but in the Church, and among Christians: Jesus Christ is still in the midst of them; he continues to speak the same language to them. You have just heard him: surrender yourself therefore to him." 

Extract From a Celebrated Work Entitled An Amicable Discussion on the Church of England and on The Reformation in General

1833

M AB14.01
Bishop Macdonell Fonds

The preface of the next booklet gives an account of the attitudes of Torontonians when Elmsley converted:
"In a free country where every man has the right to profess the creed which he finds most congenial to his conscience, we see no reason why a Catholic should be hunted down, for availing himself of the privilege which every sectarian in the land enjoys.  
"The desertion of the Hon. John Elmsley from the Church of England, and his embracing the doctrine of the Catholic Church, has raised such an alarm among protestants of all denominations in this city, that it appears to be a tocsin (sic) for those, of the most jarring and discordant dogmas to rally round their divided fabric, and bring their united artillery to bear upon Mr. Elmsely; not satisfied with the "triumphant and gentlemanlike" answer of the Venerable Archdeacon of Toronto, they must pour upon him, the most scurrilous and billingsgate abuse from the kennel of the Courier..."
Husenbeth's Defence of the Catholic Church: A Complete Refutation of the Calumnies Contained in a Work Entitled The Poor Man's Preservative Against Popery

1834

M AB14.02
Bishop Macdonell Fonds

Father William Peter MacDonald, who was Vicar General of the Diocese of Kingston at the time, wrote his own book of arguments for the Catholic Church, with topics such as the sacraments, the Latin mass, the saints, the veneration of Mary, relics, fasting, purgatory, indulgences, and more. He explained,
"Protestant is the general appellation by which all those sects designate themselves, that have built their various and every-varying systems of belief upon the same bottom with the first Reformer, Luther; that is, on the right assumed by everyone of interpreting the Holy Scriptures for himself, and of forming his faith accordingly. This common title, which they have taken to themselves, is, in truth, the most appropriate one they could possibly have chosen; as all their doctrines purely such, and properly their own, are but so many flat denials, or open protests made against as many affirmative articles taught by the Catholic Church. They are all negatives, or nay; opposed to as many affirmatives, or yea. ...
"To protest against, is to oppose. But an opposer is an adversary. The Protestant then has assumed the very title, by which in Scripture the Devil is designated ... Another Scripture name of the Devil is ... destroyer. But the word Protestant, or denier, has the very same meaning; for, to deny is to pull down and destroy what previous affirmation has built up."

The Protestant, or Negative Faith Refuted, and The Catholic, or Affirmative Faith Demonstrated from Scripture

1836

M AE22.02
Bishop Macdonell Fonds

Archbishop Lynch published a book of responses to common Protestant arguments against Catholicism. He wrote, 
"We designedly condensed the answers, that, the book might be small and cheap, in order to reach all classes.
"We have been informed that many Catholics bought several of these books to distribute, and to lend their Protestant neighbors, who became far less bigoted, in fact, more friendly in their intercourse, and were not afraid to enter a Catholic Church, and listen to the sermons which they had been erroneously informed were delivered in Latin.
"It was to give a ready answer to Catholics, as well as to inform Protestants, in search of true faith that this little book was composed. We exhort all Catholics to a greater zeal in propagating the truth whenever they can. Those who convert others from the error of their ways will have gained their neighbors' and their own salvation." 
Questions and Objections Concerning Catholic Doctrine and Practices

1877

RB53
ARCAT Rare Book Collection

If arguments fail, perhaps peer pressure will work. This 1878 leaflet lists (in order of their social standing) citizens of England who have converted to Catholicism. In his introduction, Archbishop Lynch wrote, 
"There is a good object to be gained by the publication of these names. It will show to the weak-hearted and wavering that the most noble and learned personages, have, after prayer and self-sacrifice, entered a Church that is held up to the protesting world as corrupt and soul-destroying. That calumny is refuted at once. Those great personages would not, indeed, renounce many worldly advantages but for conscience sake, that they might securely treat the true path that leads to Heaven."
Recent Converts to the Catholic Church in England

1878

RB03
ARCAT Rare Book Collection

And here's what the other side had to say. The preface states,
"Popery should be combated, not only with spiritual but political weapons - not only by the Church, but also by the state. 
"The author, however, does not advocate intolerance towards Roman Catholics. He would give them full liberty of worship and of discussion, and only deprive them, as a measure of self-defence, of the power of carrying out their persecuting system and canon law; and of such a position in the state as enables them to subserve politically the papal designs. He bears no ill will to Roman Catholics; on the contrary, his "heart's desire and prayer to God is, that they may be saved." It is always important to remember the distinction which exists between the person and the system - the sinner and the sin. 
"It is earnestly hoped that this condensation of evidence, on the antisocialism of Popery, may tend, under God, to open the eyes of many to the fearful evils of that system, and to the dangers to which we are exposed from its nefarious designs."
Popery in its Social Aspect: Being a Complete Exposure of the Immorality and Intolerance of Romanism

[1850s]

RB07
ARCAT Rare Book Collection
And just for fun, here's Fr. George Northgraves' book aimed at the mistakes of all non-Catholics in general:

Mistakes of Modern Infidels, or, Evidences of Christianity

1886

RB12
ARCAT Rare Book Collection

Today we recognize that Catholics and Protestants have more in common than they don't, and we prefer peaceful dialogue to petty argument. For that we are thankful. 

Protestants and Catholics alike are invited to an ecumenical prayer service at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church on Reformation Sunday, October 29th.